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Representative publications:

Stay tuned for upcoming 2024 publications!


International consensus guidelines for the definition, detection, and interpretation of autophagy-dependent ferroptosis. 

Chen X and 50+ authors including Sinha D. 

Autophagy. 2024; In Press. 


Multifunctional Proteins and Alternative Translation: Functional Diversification of BetaA3/A1-Crystallin Via Leaky Ribosomal Scanning” in Advances in Vision Research, Volume IV, From Basic to Translations Research — Developing Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Genetic Eye Diseases.

Stepicheva NA, Shang P, Ghosh S, Koontz V, Hose S, Zigler, JS Jr, Sinha D. 

ISBN: 978-981-99-4435-4 Springer Nature, 2024, In Press.


The murine retinal pigment epithelium requires peroxisomal beta-oxidation to maintain lysosomal function and prevent dedifferentiation.

Kocherlakota S, Das Y, Swinkels D, Vanmunster M, Callens M, Vinckier S, Vaz FM, Sinha D, Van Veldhoven PP, Fransen M, Baes M. 

PNAS. 2023; Oct 24;120(43):e2301733120. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2301733120.


The AKT2/SIRT5/TFEB pathway as a potential therapeutic target in atrophic AMD.  

Ghosh S, Sharma R, Bammidi S, Koontz V, Nemani M, Yazdankhah M, Kedziora KM, Wallace CT, Yu-Wei C, Franks J, Bose D, Rajasundaram D, Hose S, Sahel JA, Puertollano R, Finkel T, Zigler JS, Sergeev Y, Watkins SC, Goetzman ES, Flores-Bellver M, Kaarniranta K, Sodhi A, Bharti K, Handa JT, Sinha D. 

bioRxiv. 2023; Aug 9: 2023.08.08.552343. doi: 10.1101/2023.08.08.552343. Preprint.


Mitophagy in astrocytes is required for the health of optic nerve. 

Yazdankhah M, Ghosh S, Liu H, Hose S, Zigler, JS Jr, Sinha D.

Cells. 2023; 12(20), 2496.


Thermal shift assay in ferroptosis.

Bammidi S, Hose S, Handa JT, Sinha D, Ghosh S.

Methods Mol Biol. 2023; 2712:179-186. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3433-2_16.


Lysosomes in retinal health and disease.

Boya P, Kaarniranta K, Handa JT, Sinha D. 

Trends in Neurosciences. 2023; Oct 16:S0166-2236(23)00224-2. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2023.09.006.

Aberrant Akt2 signaling in the RPE may contribute to the retinal fibrosis process in diabetic retinopathy.

Daley R, Maddipatla V, Ghosh S, Chowdhury O, Hose S, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D, Liu H.

Cell Death Discovery. 2023; 13;9(1):243. doi: 10.1038/s41420-023-01545-4.


Activated cGAS-STING signaling elicits endothelial cell senescence in early diabetic retinopathy.

Liu H, Ghosh S, Vaidya T, Bammidi S, Huang C, Shang P, Nair AP, Chowdhury O, Stepicheva NA, Strizhakova A, Hose S, Mitrousis N, Gadde SG, Thirumalesh MB, Strassburger P, Widmer G, Lad EM, Fort PE, Sahel J-A, Zigler JS Jr, Sethu S, Westenskow PD, Proia AD, Sodhi A, Ghosh A, Feenstra D, Sinha D.

JCI Insight. 2023; 8(12):e168945.


Autophagy in the eye: from physiology to pathophysiology.

Liton PB, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boulton ME, Boya P, Ferguson TA, Ganley IG, Kauppinnen A, Laurie GW, Mizushima N, Morishita H, Russo R, Sadda J, Shyam R, Sinha D, Thompson DA, Zacks DN.

Autophagy Rep. 2023;2(1):2178996. doi: 10.1080/27694127.2023.2178996. 


Mitophagy initiates retrograde mitochondrial-nuclear signaling to guide retinal pigment cell heterogeneity.

Datta S, Cano M, Satyanarayana G, Liu T, Wang L, Wang J, Cheng J, Itoh K, Sharma A, Bhutto I, Kannan R, Qian J, Sinha D, Handa JT.

Autophagy. 2023 Mar;19(3):966-983. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2022.2109286.


Autophagy in age-related macular degeneration.

Kaarniranta K, Blasiak J, Liton P, Boulton M, Klionsky DJ, Sinha D.

Autophagy. 2023 Feb; 19(2):388-400. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2022.2069437.


Sustained systemic inflammation increases autophagy and induces EMT/fibrotic changes in mouse liver cells: Protection by melatonin.

Chowdhury O, Ghosh S, Das A, Liu H, Shang P, Stepicheva NA, Hose S, Sinha D, Chattopadhyay S.

Cell Signal. 2023 Jan; 101:110521. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2022.110521


Increased LCN2 (lipocalin 2) in the RPE decreases autophagy and activates inflammasome-ferroptosis processes in a mouse model of dry AMD.

Gupta U, Ghosh S, Wallace CT, Shang P, Xin Y, Nair AP, Yazdankhah M, Strizhakova A, Ross MA, Liu H, Hose S, Stepicheva NA, Chowdhury O, Nemani M, Maddipatla V, Grebe R, Das M, Lathrop KL, Sahel JA, Zigler JS Jr, Qian J, Ghosh A, Sergeev Y, Handa JT, St Croix CM, Sinha D. 

Autophagy. 2022 Apr 26:1-20. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2022.2062887.


Reducing Akt2 in retinal pigment epithelial cells causes a compensatory increase in Akt1 and attenuates diabetic retinopathy.

 Liu H, Stepicheva NA, Ghosh S, Shang P, Chowdhury O, Daley RA, Yazdankhah M, Gupta U, Hose SL, Valapala M, Fitting CS, Strizhakova A, Shan Y, Feenstra D, Sahel JA, Jayagopal A, Handa JT, Zigler JS Jr, Fort PE, Sodhi A, Sinha D. 

Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 13;13(1):6045. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-33773-0. 


βA3/A1-crystallin regulates apical polarity and EGFR endocytosis in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

Shang P, Stepicheva N, Teel K, McCauley A, Fitting CS, Hose S, Grebe R, Yazdankhah M, Ghosh S, Liu H,   Strizhakova A, Weiss J, Bhutto IA, Lutty GA, Jayagopal A, Qian J, Sahel JA, Zigler JS Jr, Handa JT, Sergeev Y,  Rajala RVS, Watkins S, Sinha D.

Commun Biol. 2021 Jul 8;4(1):850. doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02386-6.

βA1-crystallin regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in mouse retinal astrocytes by modulating PTP1B activity.

Ghosh S, Liu H, Yazdankhah M, Stepicheva N, Shang P, Vaidya T, Hose S, Gupta U, Calderon MJ, Hu MW, Nair AP, Weiss J, Fitting CS, Bhutto IA, Gadde SGK, Naik NK, Jaydev C, Lutty GA, Handa JT, Jayagopal A, Qian J, Sahel JA, Rajasundaram D, Sergeev Y, Zigler JS Jr, Sethu S, Watkins S, Ghosh A, Sinha D.

Commun Biol. 2021 Feb 24;4(1):248. doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-01763-5.

BNIP3L-mediated mitophagy is required for mitochondrial remodeling during the differentiation of optic nerve oligodendrocytes.

Yazdankhah M, Ghosh S, Shang P, Stepicheva N, Hose S, Liu H, Chamling X, Tian S, Sullivan M, Calderon MJ,  Fitting CS, Weiss J, Jayagopal A, Handa JT, Sahel J-A, Zigler JS Jr, Kinchington PR, Zack DJ, Sinha D.

Autophagy. 2021 Jan 19;1-20. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1871204.

Modulating EGFR-MTORC1-autophagy as a Potential Therapy for Persistent Fetal Vasculature (PFV) Disease.

Yazdankhah M, Shang P, Ghosh S, Bhutto IA, Stepicheva N, Grebe R, Hose S, Weiss J, Luo T, Mishra S, Riazuddin SA, Ghosh A, Handa JT, Lutty GA, Zigler  JS Jr, Sinha D.

Autophagy. 2020 Jun;16(6):1130-1142. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1660545.

Neutrophils Homing Into the Retina Trigger Pathology in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Ghosh S, Padmanabhan A, Vaidya T, Watson AM, Bhutto IA, Hose S, Shang P, Stepicheva N, Yazdankhah M, Weiss J, Das M, Gopikrishna S, Aishwarya, Yadav N, Berger T, Mak TW, Xia S, Qian J, Lutty GA, Jayagopal A, Zigler JS Jr, Sethu S, Handa JT, Watkins SC, Ghosh A, Sinha D.

Commun Biol. 2019 Sep 20;2:348. doi: 10.1038/s42003-019-0588-y.

A Role for βA3/A1-Crystallin in Type 2 EMT of RPE Cells Occurring in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Ghosh S, Shang P, Terasaki H, Stepicheva N, Hose S, Yazdankhah M, Weiss J, Sakamoto T, Bhutto IA, Xia S, Zigler JS Jr, Kannan R, Qian J, Handa JT, Sinha D.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Mar 20;59(4):AMD104-AMD113. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-24132.

ATAC-Seq Analysis Reveals a Widespread Decrease of Chromatin Accessibility in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Wang J, Zibetti C, Shang P, Sripathi SR, Zhang P, Cano M, Hoang T, Xia S, Ji H, Merbs SL, Zack DJ, Handa JT,      Sinha D, Blackshaw S, Qian J

Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 10;9(1):1364. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03856-y.

The amino acid transporter SLC36A4 regulates the amino acid pool in retinal pigmented epithelial cells and mediates the mechanistic target of rapamycin,      complex 1 signaling.

Shang P, Valapala M, Grebe R, Hose S, Ghosh S, Bhutto IA, Handa JT, Lutty GA, Lu L, Wan J, Qian J, Sergeev Y, Puertollano R, Zigler JS Jr, Xu GT, Sinha D.

Aging Cell. 2017 Apr;16(2):349-359. doi: 10.1111/acel.12561.

Activating the AKT2-nuclear factor-κB-lipocalin-2 axis elicits an inflammatory response in age-related macular degeneration.

Ghosh S, Shang P, Yazdankhah M, Bhutto I, Hose S, Montezuma SR, Luo T, Chattopadhyay S, Qian J, Lutty GA, Ferrington DA, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

J Pathol. 2017 Apr;241(5):583-588. doi: 10.1002/path.4870.

Increased Lipocalin-2 in the retinal pigment epithelium of Cryba1 cKO mice is associated with a chronic inflammatory response.

Valapala M, Edwards M, Hose S, Grebe R, Bhutto IA, Cano M, Berger T, Mak TW, Wawrousek E, Handa JT, Lutty GA, Samuel Zigler J Jr, Sinha D.

Aging Cell. 2014 Dec;13(6):1091-4. doi: 10.1111/acel.12274.

Lysosomal-mediated waste clearance in retinal pigment epithelial cells is regulated by CRYBA1/βA3/A1-crystallin via V-ATPase-MTORC1 signaling.

Valapala M, Wilson C, Hose S, Bhutto IA, Grebe R, Dong A, Greenbaum S, Gu L, Sengupta S, Cano M, Hackett S, Xu G, Lutty GA, Dong L, Sergeev Y, Handa JT, Campochiaro P, Wawrousek E, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Autophagy. 2014 Mar;10(3):480-96. doi: 10.4161/auto.27292.

Impaired endolysosomal function disrupts Notch signalling in optic nerve astrocytes.

Valapala M, Hose S, Gongora C, Dong L, Wawrousek EF, Samuel Zigler J Jr, Sinha D.

Nat Commun. 2013;4:1629. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2624.

Mutation in the βA3/A1-crystallin gene impairs phagosome degradation in the retinal pigmented epithelium of the rat.

Zigler JS Jr, Zhang C, Grebe R, Sehrawat G, Hackler L Jr, Adhya S, Hose S, McLeod DS, Bhutto I, Barbour W, Parthasarathy G, Zack DJ, Sergeev Y, Lutty GA, Handa JT, Sinha D.

J Cell Sci. 2011 Feb 15;124(Pt 4):523-31. doi: 10.1242/jcs.078790.

Further reading:

Role of glia in optic nerve.

Yazdankhah M, Shang P, Ghosh S, Hose S, Liu H, Weiss J, Fitting CS, Bhutto IA, Zigler JS Jr, Qian J, Sahel J-A, Sinha D, Stepicheva NA.

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 6;100886. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100886.

Mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and their impact on age-related macular degeneration.

Kaarniranta K, Uusitalo H, Blasiak J, Felszeghy S, Kannan R, Kauppinen A, Salminen A, Sinha D, Ferrington D.

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Apr 13;100858. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100858.

The Role of lipocalin-2 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

Ghosh S, Stepicheva N, Yazdankhah M, Shang P, Watson AM, Hose S, Liu H, Weiss J, Zigler JS Jr, Valapala M, Watkins SC, Sinha D.

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Mar;77(5):835-851. doi: 10.1007/s00018-019-03423-8.

Melatonin as the Possible Link Between Age-Related Retinal Regeneration and the Disrupted Circadian Rhythm in Elderly.

Stepicheva NA, Weiss J, Shang P, Yazdankhah M, Ghosh S, Bhutto IA, Hose S, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1185:45-49. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-27378-1_8.

Primary Cell Cultures from the Mouse Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

Shang P, Stepicheva NA, Hose S, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

J Vis Exp. 2018 Mar 16;(133). doi: 10.3791/56997.

A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

Zigler JS Jr, Hodgkinson CA, Wright M, Klise A, Sundin O, Broman KW, Hejtmancik F, Huang H, Patek B, Sergeev Y, Hose S, Brayton C, Xaiodong J, Vasquez D, Maragakis N, Mori S, Goldman D, Hoke A, Sinha D.

PLoS One. 2016 Jul 29;11(7):e0160447. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160447. 

Modulation of V-ATPase by βA3/A1-Crystallin in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Valapala M, Sergeev Y, Wawrousek E, Hose S, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:779-84. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17121-0_104.

Lysosomes: Regulators of autophagy in the retinal pigmented epithelium.

Sinha D, Valapala M, Shang P, Hose S, Grebe R, Lutty GA, Zigler JS Jr, Kaarniranta K, Handa JT.

Exp Eye Res. 2016 Mar;144:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2015.08.018.

βA3/A1-crystallin and persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) disease of the eye.

Zigler JS Jr, Valapala M, Shang P, Hose S, Goldberg MF, Sinha D.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Jan;1860(1 Pt B):287-98. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.05.017.

βA3/A1-crystallin is a critical mediator of STAT3 signaling in optic nerve astrocytes.

Valapala M, Edwards M, Hose S, Hu J, Wawrousek E, Lutty GA, Zigler JS Jr, Qian J, Sinha D.

Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 4;5:8755. doi: 10.1038/srep08755.

Expression pattern of an evolutionarily conserved splice variant in the rat Tacc2 gene.

Padhi BK, Zigler JS Jr, Padhi P, Hose S, Sinha D.

Genesis. 2014 May;52(5):378-86. doi: 10.1002/dvg.22776.

βA3/A1-crystallin is required for proper astrocyte template formation and vascular remodeling in the retina.

Sinha D, Valapala M, Bhutto I, Patek B, Zhang C, Hose S, Yang F, Cano M, Stark WJ, Lutty GA, Zigler JS, Wawrousek EF.

Transgenic Res. 2012 Oct;21(5):1033-42. doi: 10.1007/s11248-012-9608-0.

βA3/A1-Crystallin controls anoikis-mediated cell death in astrocytes by modulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK survival pathways through the PKD/Bit1-signaling axis.

Ma B, Sen T, Asnaghi L, Valapala M, Yang F, Hose S, McLeod DS, Lu Y, Eberhart C, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Cell Death Dis. 2011 Oct 13;2:e217. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2011.100.

A developmental defect in astrocytes inhibits programmed regression of the hyaloid vasculature in the mammalian eye.

Zhang C, Asnaghi L, Gongora C, Patek B, Hose S, Ma B, Fard MA, Brako L, Singh K, Goldberg MF, Handa JT, Lo WK, Eberhart CG, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Eur J Cell Biol. 2011 May;90(5):440-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.01.003.

betaA3/A1-crystallin in astroglial cells regulates retinal vascular remodeling during development.

Sinha D, Klise A, Sergeev Y, Hose S, Bhutto IA, Hackler L Jr, Malpic-Llanos T, Samtani S, Grebe R, Goldberg MF, Hejtmancik JF, Nath A, Zack DJ, Fariss RN, McLeod DS, Sundin O, Broman KW, Lutty GA, Zigler JS Jr.

Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Jan;37(1):85-95.

Developmental abnormalities in the Nuc1 rat retina: a spontaneous mutation that affects neuronal and vascular remodeling and retinal function.

Gehlbach P, Hose S, Lei B, Zhang C, Cano M, Arora M, Neal R, Barnstable C, Goldberg MF, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Neuroscience. 2006;137(2):447-61. 

A potential role for beta- and gamma-crystallins in the vascular remodeling of the eye.

Zhang C, Gehlbach P, Gongora C, Cano M, Fariss R, Hose S, Nath A, Green WR, Goldberg MF, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Dev Dyn. 2005 Sep;234(1):36-47.

A spontaneous mutation affects programmed cell death during development of the rat eye.

Sinha D, Hose S, Zhang C, Neal R, Ghosh M, O'Brien TP, Sundin O, Goldberg MF, Robison WG Jr, Russell P, Lo WK, Samuel Zigler J Jr.

Exp Eye Res. 2005 Mar;80(3):323-35.

A novel rat model to study the functions of macrophages during normal development and pathophysiology of the eye.

Hose S, Zigler JS Jr, Sinha D.

Immunol Lett. 2005 Jan 31;96(2):299-302.

Complete List of Debasish Sinha's published work:

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